Mum To Mom

Musings of an Aussie Mother Living in the USA

Category: Homeschooling (page 1 of 4)

2018/2019 End-of-Year Round Up

Last year, I began the tradition of interviewing my kids about how they felt about their school year. This year my girls finished 4th, 5th, and 7th grade using Ambleside Online’s Years 4, 5, and 7. These are their reflections followed by my own.

G-Age-9(AO4)

Favorite subjects/books
My favorite books are Kidnapped, Incredible Journey, the Roman gods one (Age Of Fable) and George Washington’s World. And George Washington is my favorite subject.

Area that I grew the most in this year
Cursive and reading, but mostly cursive.

Area I need to work on the most
Spelling.

The most interesting topic in history
George Washington. He saved America.

The most interesting topic in science
The submarine.

What was the hardest thing this year?
Reading and spelling and math.

Is there anything that you would change or add?
I would add breaks in between hard things. I think I might change it to Morning Time first and math would go after the first reading. And all the hard things would go after a reading, and then a reading would go after the hard thing. Like, reading, math, reading, cursive… (this is already how we typically structure our day. She wants the first hard thing we do to be Math instead of cursive like it was this year).

Things that you felt did not go well in our homeschool this year
I thought that Nessy was horrible (reading curriculum), math was exhausting, and that Abigail Adams and Inventions (The Story of Inventions) was just a really hard book to read and understand. And I partially did typing but I stopped.

Any supplies you wish you had
A drawing kit with erasers, sharpener, pencils, pastels, maybe some markers. And maybe the hard paper-the watercolor paper, and a sleeping mask and a pair of slippers that fit me.

Anything else
On the good days, it’s fine. On the bad days when I haven’t had good sleep, it is stressful and I don’t do good at narrating.

Best part of your homeschool day
I think Morning Time and spending time with my parents.

I am most proud of
My narrations.

I am pretty good at
Liking the books Mom reads to me.

Next year I hope to
Be better at reading.

E-Age-10(AO5)

Favorite subjects/books
Math and doing the readings. Sometimes I like to write the copywork because it’s fun to write. My favorite books are George Washington Carver, Oliver Twist, Theodore Roosevelt (Carry a Big Stick), and the inventions book (The Story of Inventions). I like history. I liked The Story of the World and This Country of Ours and I also liked Of Courage Undaunted and Kim. So I basically liked all my books. But my favorite books is like, a little bit from every history book, Oliver Twist, Theodore Roosevelt, and Inventions. I like them because they are interesting. If they weren’t interesting I probably wouldn’t pay attention as much.

Area that I grew the most in this year
Math and history. History of all the presidents I get to write down on the timeline. And so probably, in other years, when I’m a grown up and teach my kids I could just go back, look at mine, and show them as an example of what I did, so they would want to do what I did. And then they will be able to do their children if they have kids. So you can just look back and see all the work you’ve done and you just get proud of it.

Area I need to work on the most
Concentration. I wander off and think of other things like my favorite TV show and I don’t pay attention that much and so I miss the main of the story. I also need to practice learning math. Even though it is quite easy, I just get lazy and then I have to do math in the summer, even though it’s a school break, because I got lazy in the middle of the year and I did less math and so now I have to pay the consequences.

The most interesting topic in history
How all the presidents… and how the President, Thomas Jefferson sent people down to see how big America was. And it was BIG. And they actually made friends with a lot of Indians. And Thomas Jefferson was wise. He said, “If you can’t make friends with the Indians, stop and don’t go on any further, because we don’t want a war with any Indians.”

The most interesting topic in science
The parts of the body. I like to know how it’s made because, if you don’t know how your body is made, it’s like using a machine but you don’t know how it works. Because if you’re a doctor, you need to know what to do … [a lot of examples omitted for length]. I also liked Inventions. They are a little bit history but also science.

Is there anything that you would change or add?
No.

Things that you felt did not go well in our homeschool this year
I think we should have been constant reading the bible and doing Morning Time every day. Because sometimes we’d forget. And the things that didn’t go well is that I would always finish it very quickly because it would be easy and fun. I would start off school really early but then for most of the day I didn’t have anything to do so I grew bored and needed more school.

Anything else
To make things fun even though it’s hard. Make like a fun project. Like, if you’re learning math and it’s a hard question, you could just, “how many questions can you do in this time?” Or if that does not help me, you could say, “well, just do this section of math questions.” And once I’ve finished that section I would be like, “yay, I’ve finished.” You can be like, “how about you do a little bit more.” And then I can get all the math done. Or you can separate it into sections… like I do when I tidy my room.

Any supplies you wish you had
More knowledge and wisdom and to learn to control my temper when I get frustrated that I can’t work out the question of math.

Best part of your homeschool day
The readings and being satisfied that I have actually learned something.

I am most proud of
That I can understand math and I can understand my history and read it well. And learning the science about the body. So I have all this knowledge. And I am proud that I have a great mother who can teach me things. And that I write down the president’s names and it just helps me memorize them.

I am pretty good at
Reading. Because Mom taught me in a fun way.

Next year I hope to
Improve of my concentration and to help to understand the math and not think of other things while I’m reading. I just hope I can get the things done and won’t have to be slack in math so I won’t have to do it in the summer.

A-Age-12(AO7)

Favorite subjects/books
My favorite book I read this year wasn’t a school book. It was David Copperfield. It was really fun and enjoyable and you got to learn about the characters. They showed different parts of human personalities and different people and it was really fun.

My favorite school book this year… I had a lot of favorites. I liked Fallacy Detective, How To Be Your Own Selfish Pig, Freedom (In Freedom’s Cause), The Brendan Voyage, and a lot of others that I can’t remember the names of.

I liked Selfish Pig because it was funny but also told you how not to be and it had really funny and true descriptions of people who had stopped being a selfish pig. I liked Freedom because I had never really understood that part of history and through the main character, Archie, I was able to understand that. Brendan Voyage was just enjoyable.

Area that I grew the most in this year
Math. Because I worked really really hard on it so I wouldn’t fail the Stanford 10.

Area I need to work on the most
Math.

The most interesting topic in history
War of the Roses because it’s very, very complicated. And if you don’t understand exactly which side is coming from you can be unjustly biased. I still don’t quite understand everything and there are also some really complicated parts where some people don’t do anything, which doesn’t make any sense. And it’s really interesting and people can probably justify themselves pretty logically from being on either side, even though there is only one right side, and that’s the Yorkist. Which, by the way, I am.

The most interesting topic in science
The laws of this world (The Secrets of The Universe). Like the Law of Acceleration. It’s kind of cool.

The best part of our homeschool day
When I get to read my literature and history books because they’re often classics. Or if they’re not classics they are really well written, interesting books that teach you along the way. I like being able to read books and learn and not just have some boring textbook tell me something.

Is there anything that you would change or add?
Figure out some way for me to magically get better at all the hard things. Other than that it’s really helpful that I have a checklist and can just change it to fit the day and what’s happening. So there is not really anything I would like to change.

Things that you felt did not go well in our homeschool this year
Not starting on time. Which then derailed our day which then put us later in the afternoon which then got it all stressful. Then I was grumpy and then other people were grumpy, and we made each other grumpy because we were grumpy and then it just didn’t turn out very well. But that was only a couple of days.

Any supplies you wish you had
There isn’t really any supplies I need. I just need patience because I have everything I need to make my notebooks pretty, but I just need the patience to get it done. At the end of the project I’m like, “yes, this was worth it. It was worthwhile.” But then at the beginning, I’m like, “this is pointless. Why would I do this?” And then halfway through the year, I change my mood, but I have to actually start to get to that halfway point.

I am most proud of
Math because I worked really really hard and I got it all done. I was able to get better at it.

I am pretty good at
I am pretty good at reading and spelling and history and literature and logic. The only subjects I have the most trouble with are Math and Science and Chemistry, which is kind of the same thing.

Next year I hope to
Next year I hope to be done with King Arthur. Because I am sick of it.

Anything else
There is nothing I would like to add because it is fine. Really, really, really, really enjoyable. I think the only feedback I could give wouldn’t be to you, it would be to me… to just get down and do the school and stop with the whining and complaining, because I’m going to have to do it anyway and I always end up doing it so I may as well do it at the beginning and not waste all that time whining and complaining and making it out to be something way worse than it is.

Me

I have said before that I am reading almost all of my eldest daughter’s school books alongside her. Essentially, this year I completed AO7 with her. It was a challenging year for many reasons, but the books, as always, were rich and enjoyable.

Favorite subjects/books
The Pursuit of God by A.W. Tozer and The Pursuit of Holiness by Jerry Bridges. These were such rich books and I grew so much in my faith. It was a delight to read these alongside A-Age-12 and discuss them with her.

I also loved The Birth of Britain by Winston Churchill, The Brendan Voyage by Tim Severin, Beowulf, and How the Heather Looks by Joan Bodger.

Area that I grew the most in this year
Time management.

Area I need to work on the most
Consistency in training habits. My own and my children.

The most interesting topic in history
Seeing the development of the parliament and laws for the people.

The most interesting topic in science
Without a doubt The Laws of Science (The Secrets of the Universe by Paul Fleisher). It is incredible how perfect and ordered God made this universe. The relativity of time blew our minds.

What was the hardest thing this year?
Managing different personalities living under the same roof who are with each other all. the. time. This has been very sanctifying.

Is there anything that you would change or add?
Because of an amazing friend who speaks fluent Spanish, I am able to add Spanish back into our curriculum again! Very excited about that.

Things you felt did not go well in our homeschool this year
I had tried moving memorizations out of our Morning Time and into each child’s independent work. They were supposed to manage these themselves. Even though I had their memory work clearly printed on their checklists, the children did not consistently work on memory work like they were supposed to. I had attempted to build in accountability by scheduling weekly recitations of the poems and Scriptures they were working on, however, we were so inconsistent with actually doing this that learning new memory work, especially in the last term, fell apart.

I am most proud of
The answers my children gave in this interview! The ability to self evaluate their strengths and weaknesses will be such a valuable skill for them as they go on in life. I had not intentionally set out to teach them that, but through this interview process, I can see that they are learning to do that.

I am pretty good at
Adjusting a lesson on the fly to suit the situation.

Next year I hope to
Be more consistent with our memory work and keeping timelines and notebooks.

Anything else
I can get so down on myself as I think about all the ways I didn’t meet my own expectation for the year, but listening to the children’s thoughtful answers and seeing how much of the school year they enjoyed and grew has been an incredible encouragement. I am thankful to our sovereign God who is over all and through all and in all. Only by His Grace can I continue to raise and educate these amazing, complex, deep-thinking human beings. Soli Deo Gloria.

Half Way Around The World And Back Again


Growing up in Victoria, Australia, I had the opportunity to live among gum trees and wattles, admire the colorful rosellas, and laugh along with the kookaburras who had made their home in my back yard. In my early years, I went to school in the “bush.” The school was an hour from my suburban house, nestled in countryside thick with bushes and trees and lakes and wildlife. In later years, I moved school campuses to a farm boasting an equestrian program and land teeming with life. But I didn’t notice. Preferring to spend my time inside as much as possible, I didn’t pay attention. I didn’t see. I was surrounded by the beauty of God’s creation but spent my childhood with my eyes shut.

Fast forward to 2012. My husband, my then three small children (we now have four), and I moved halfway around the world to Florida, U.S.A. Everything was new and different. I had just discovered Charlotte Mason and Ambleside Online and was beginning to learn about a philosophy that would change my life. I didn’t know then all of her principles, but I had learned enough to know that we should go outside and notice. And there was so much to notice in a new country. The colors were brighter, the flora and fauna were different. We delighted to see squirrels for the first time in our lives! We began to keep Nature Journals. They were not pretty. They were spiraled lined cheap notebooks whose pages would tear easily and get soggy with paint. But they were our first experience of going outside and really seeing. We didn’t know the names for most of what we saw but it didn’t matter. We were looking and we were really seeing. For the first time in my life, my eyes were open. Little did I know that I was building what Charlotte Mason termed a “habit of attention.”

When we went back to visit Australia in 2016, it was as though I was seeing it for the first time. It’s fields, it’s trees, it’s grasses, it’s flowers, it’s hills and cliffs and beaches were captivating. How had I not noticed before? I was struck by how different the color palate was to Florida. Gum trees have smooth grey bark! Who knew? I drew my children’s attention to the kookaburras and magpies, the variety of gum trees and the wattle. I didn’t have a name for everything, but I saw it. We saw it. Our eyes were open. And it was beautiful.

Atmosphere: An Instrument of Education

Last time, I discussed Charlotte Mason’s 4th principle concerning the tools a teacher ought not to use in educating her student. The following four principles, Principles 5-8, discuss the three educational instruments that Mason identifies should be used by a teacher: “atmosphere of environment, the discipline of habit, and the presentation of living ideas.” Today, I am discussing the first of these.

(principle 5a&6) “Therefore, we are limited to three educational instruments–the atmosphere of environment…
When we say that “education is an atmosphere,” we do not mean a child should be isolated in what may be called a ‘child environment’ especially adapted and prepared, but that we should take into account the educational value of his natural home atmosphere, both as regards persons and things, and should let him live freely among his proper conditions. It stultifies a child to bring down his world to the child’s level.”

As I progress through my study of Charlotte Mason’s 20 Principle’s of education, it becomes more apparent to me how interconnected these principles are. Brandy, in her study guide “Start Here,” has helpfully paired the principles to discuss only one at a time, but it must be remembered that they are interconnected, and one does not work in isolation of the others.

Atmosphere of Environment, not Asthetic

To the moms who feel like they do not have it all together in their homes, whose decor hasn’t been updated since they got married because they have been knee-deep in diapers and dinner while teaching a tribe of kids, whose goal has been to just keep everyone alive and fed and happy and educated—be encouraged! When Mason talks about “atmosphere of environment,’ she is not talking about having the Pinterest perfect, spa-like, minimalist oasis that we idolize nowadays on TV and in magazines. In fact, she criticizes what she calls the “Cult of aestheticism” that she saw in her own day. It seems that the idea was that the right color schemes, with the right pictures on the wall, and the right sounds and right “gracious persons” would, by osmosis, furnace in a child a “high soul.” This kind of thinking can deceive us even today. But aesthetics do not a virtuous man make. Let me insert a caveat right here. Having a well organized and aesthetically calm and pleasing physical environment can be helpful in the preparation for learning. If you like a minimalist aesthetic with neutral colored walls and furniture made of natural materials with beautiful artwork on your walls (like I do), go for it. But the carefully constructed physical environment itself does not produce an educated virtuous person and is not required for education to take place.

When Mason talks of the atmosphere of environment she is also not talking about the modern day classroom aesthetic, “especially adapted and prepared,” with the ‘educational’ posters on the wall and primary colored decorations of fake paper trees or birds or fish etc. Mason criticizes the dumbing down of a child’s environment to something artificial then calling it “education.” She saw this as a betrayal of the personhood of the child.

“It is not an environment that these want, a set of artificial relations carefully constructed, but an atmosphere which nobody has been at pains to constitute. It is there, about the child, his natural element, precisely as the atmosphere of the earth is about us.” – Vol 6, p96

So what is Mason talking about? The atmosphere of the home is not primarily concerned with what it looks like. It goes beyond the physical space. It is about relationship.

Atmosphere as Relationship

Mason paints a beautiful picture of Atmosphere, “the natural conditions under which a child should live,” as relationships that a child develops with the people and things around him. It is a lengthy quote but well worth reading in its entirety.

“We all know the natural conditions under which a child should live; how he shares household ways with his mother, romps with his father, is teased by his brothers and petted by his sisters; is taught by his tumbles; learns self-denial by the baby’s needs, the delightfulness of furniture by playing at battle and siege with sofa and table; learns veneration for the old by the visits of his great-grandmother; how to live with his equals by the chums he gathers round him; learns intimacy with animals from his dog and cat; delight in the fields where the buttercups grow and greater delight in the blackberry hedges. And, what tempered ‘fusion of classes’ is so effective as a child’s intimacy with his betters, and also with cook and housemaid, blacksmith and joiner, with everybody who comes in his way? Children have a genius for this sort of general intimacy, a valuable part of their education; care and guidance are needed, of course, lest admiring friends should make fools of them, but no compounded ‘environment’ could make up for this fresh air, this wholesome wind blowing now from one point, now from another.” – Vol 6,p96-97

So, when your house is a mess and your children have all but neglected their math for a week because they have been caring for a sick baby goat who can’t nurse from his mama, you are utilizing the exact tool that Mason says is education. It is not sheltering them from the hard knocks by creating an artificial “child environment,” but cultivating relationships with people and the world so that they grow in virtue through the hard knocks.

It is when you tell your child that they can’t do that activity today because dear Mrs. Smith is not well and you need to bring her a meal and make sure she is ok. Or, when they spend the whole morning in the garage with Grandpa as he shows them his tools, tells them his stories, and has them help him build his latest project. Or when you pray as a family for a church member who has a great need. It is the atmosphere of relationship with the real world that is “fresh air, this wholesome wind blowing now from one point, now from another..”

My son has a play kitchen that he enjoys playing with which satisfies his imagination for a short time. But it by no means fools him to thinking that it is anything like the real thing. He gains much more satisfaction in being in the real kitchen with real running water and a real oven and stove where he can help stir the evening’s meal. He is most satisfied when he knows that he has contributed to the house by helping cook our meal. It is this atmosphere of serving, contributing, and experiencing real life that is most formative. Because they know the difference.

“…no artificial element be introduced, no sprinkling with rose-water, softening with cushions. Children must face life as it is.” Vol 6, p97

Atmosphere as Love and The Common Pursuit of Truth

I have discussed before Mason’s belief that the love of knowledge ought to be the primary motivation for learning. This idea permeates her writings.

“We foresee happy days for children when all teachers know that no other exciting motive whatever is necessary to produce good work in each individual of however big a class than that love of knowledge which is natural to every child” – Vol 6, p98

This atmosphere of the love of learning diverges greatly from our utilitarian culture. Passing a test is now substituted for actual education. But this is a poor facsimile and does not attain to the goal of growing in godliness and virtue. Knowledge itself is worth knowing. Pursuing knowledge for its own sake teaches us to love what is lovely. And ultimately, if we think rightly about the knowledge we are pursuing, it leads us to worship God. He is the Creator of all things. All knowledge comes from Him for His glory. And we, His creatures, should delight in His world and glorify Him because of it.

When books and read-alouds, beautiful music and art, nature walks and enjoying the outdoors are part of your everyday family life; when working hard, diligence, kindness, gentleness, love and thoughtfulness towards others are a common pursuit in the atmosphere of your home; when worship and delight of God are part of the everyday conversation and vocabulary of your home, you are utilizing this powerful instrument afforded to us by our loving Creator: Atmosphere.

“… and this atmosphere in which the child inspires his unconscious ideas of right living emanates from his parents.” – Vol2, p37

Atmosphere is like the fresh air of life. It is not materials and a pretty classroom set up. It is developing relationships with real people in the real world. It is a home where parents have a love for knowledge and seek to grow in knowledge alongside their children.

“The bracing atmosphere of truth and sincerity should be perceived in every School; and here again the common pursuit of knowledge by teacher and class comes to our aid and creates a Current of fresh air perceptible even to the chance visitor, who sees the glow of intellectual life and “moral health on the faces of teachers and children alike.” – Vol 6, p97

 

If you’d like to join me in studying Charlotte Mason’s 20 Principles, get your copy of Start Here and see this post for details

A Journey Through Charlotte Mason 20 Principles Directory

Valderi, Valdera: Reflections on Ambleside Online Camp Meeting

I have just got back from spending a wonderful weekend at Ambleside Online’s 2019 Camp Meeting. On the plane ride home I endeavored to collect my thoughts and process all that I had learned from the conference. But as I attempted to reflect, the folksong, The Happy Wanderer, played over and over in my head. “Valderi, Valdera. Valderi, Valdera, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha…” Over and over and over. When Wendi Capehart taught us that song during the conference, she told us that we would be singing it whether we wanted to or not. She was right. At first, I found it irritating that this unwanted folksong persisted in pervading my thoughts. I wanted to be thinking of deep and meaningful things, not a frivolous folksong. But then I decided that instead of fighting with it, I would embrace it. I could not help but smile and even laugh as the song played round in my head.

You try singing, “…valdera, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha,” without laughing.

Do you know what? Once I embraced it, it was exactly what I needed at that moment. I was smiling, singing a funny song, and enjoying the moment. It reminded me of something that Cindy Rollins said this weekend. Moms need to be joyful. We homeschool moms, who take educating our children very seriously, can easily forget to be joyful in our work. We worry about doing enough. We worry about doing it right. We agonize over all the ways we aren’t living up to “The Perfect.” This weekend Lynn Bruce exhorted us to put away comparing and seeking the perfect Charlotte Mason education. Because there is no perfect education. There is your family’s education. We have these beautiful persons, given to us for such a short while, full of energy and life and wonder, who we forget to smile at because we’re busy looking at what others are doing and thinking we’re not measuring up. We unwittingly push away those organic Valdera, ha, ha, ha,ha,ha moments and miss out on the very joy that is there for us if we allow ourselves to see it.

This work that we are doing is hard, especially when you’re “in the middle” as Sheila Atchley reminded us. But it is joyful work. It is good work. It is kingdom work. We are not raising or educating careers; we are discipling our children and educating their moral imagination. Wendi taught us that through living books our children learn to imagine what it is like to be in someone else’s shoes. They learn to imagine what it is like to be in other cultures, other ways of life. Through living books, our children are developing empathy for the orphan, empathy for the downcast, empathy for the worker in a factory or a leader of a nation. Wendi explained that there was no need for the “goody goody” (as Charlotte Mason calls them) moralizing book that often hardens the hearts of our children instead of softening them. Because living books bring those character qualities worth emulating to the forefront in living, real characters and life situations. As Tim Laurio, from the progeny panel, told us: the characters become their friends who guide them through life. Their failings and successes and even their words of wisdom, set down in the pages of literature, serve as guideposts for life. This is why living books and narration are so integral to Charlotte Mason’s philosophy.

Mason understood the universal law that “Children are born persons.” Karen Glass taught us that this principle as well as “education is the science of relations” were the pillars from which all Mason’s other principles hinge. As Karen went on to explain, these were principles that Mason observed as already existing. She just wrote them down. Anne White said it well when she stated, “Simple principles simply stated are often the best.” Anne showed us that these principles aren’t for the purpose of serving ourselves, they are for the stewardship and service of others. When we realize that Mason’s education philosophy was in order to develop a character that loves God and loves people, we can be joyful in our work. We can smile and be content and hopeful, as Cindy encouraged us to be, because our work is not for us. And it is not for college. It is for others. And most importantly, it is for God. As Cindy reminded us, we are educating our children for the worship of God.

Donna-Jean Breckenridge emphasized that it is not our job to save our children, but to lead them to one who can. Lead them to His Word — His truth. She explained that we do this by being in His Word and praying. Pray, pray, pray, pray, pray because, as Donna-Jean said, “there is a King over ALL” and we can trust Him. He is faithful. And because He is faithful we can be joyful and sing with the Psalmist:

“This is the day that the Lord has made; let us rejoice and be glad in it.” Psalm 118:24

It’s All About the Motivation

“You need to get this work done now! Don’t you know that your future is at stake? If you don’t work hard now, you won’t get a scholarship to the best college, then you won’t get the best job at the best place, and you won’t make lots of money. You don’t want to disappoint me, do you? So memorize these multiplication facts, now!” 

A Journey Through Charlotte Mason’s 20 Principles: Principle 4

“These principles (ie., authority and docility) are limited by the respect due to the personality of children which may not be encroached upon whether by the direct use of fear or love, suggestion or influence, or by undue play upon any one natural desire.”

Throughout Charlotte Mason’s volumes, Mason is highly concerned with the development of character.  From her observations of children, she saw the biggest problem was that they were “incapable of steady effort, because they had no strength of will, no power to make themselves do that which they knew they ought to do.”  As homeschoolers, I think we often see the same problem. The children don’t seem to want to motivate themselves. They don’t have the strength of will to do what they ought to do without reminders and prods and motivation from us. This can be true, not just for children, but for many adults as well. It is comforting to know that Mason saw the same problems and thought long and hard to find a way to help children overcome this fault.

She does this keeping in mind that children are whole people. They have personalities, strengths and weaknesses, and minds capable of great understanding. They are made in the image of God and are to be respected. The personhood of children is not to be undermined or undervalued or encroached upon. It may not be manipulated or coerced. The development of a child’s character as God’s image bearer was of paramount importance to Mason. Children must grow up moral with their affections rightly ordered, and any method employed in the educating of children must not hinder, crush, or maim their character.  It was not worldly success that she saw as the purpose of education, but virtue. This is a classical idea.* Plato said, “Education is teaching our children to desire the right things.” In The Liberal Arts Tradition: A Philosophy of Christian Classical Education, Ravi Jain and Kevin Clark call it piety. Mason realized she was educating people. Not computers. Not factories. People.

Knowledge Is Delectable

Not only did Mason have a high view of children, she had a high view of knowledge. “Knowledge is delectable,” she tells us. Knowledge for its own sake should be the motivation. This is God’s world and we are His creatures — we should want to know. It reminds me of the shorter catechism question, ‘What is the chief end of man?”

The answer:

“Man’s chief end is to glorify God and enjoy him forever.”

This means our purpose is to glorify and delight in God. We delight in Him by delighting in His Word. We also enjoy and glorify God by delighting in His Creation and His people—learning from those who have gone before, the good and the bad, so that our character may grow to be more Christlike so that we may glorify Him.

This, of course, does not come easily. But there is much that we as teachers and parents can do, and NOT do, to lead our children toward desiring knowledge for themselves. It is because of her view of children as persons and the high importance she places on the development of their character as well as their intellect, that Mason’s fourth principle of education places limits on the methods appropriate to educating children.

“we act our parts and play in an unlawful way upon motives.” – Vol 6, p81

How Not to Motivate

Mason warns that any means a teacher might employ to compel a child to do what is required of them that draws their affections and motivations away from knowledge itself, is to be avoided. To compel a child to work by fear (fear of you, punishment, or failure), love (so that they would do anything for you like a pathetic little puppydog), undue influence and suggestion (which I would call manipulation), is to compromise their character so that they become, as Mason says, “flaccid.” In other words, weak.

“Bob or mary is losing that growing time which should make a self-dependent, self-ordered person, and is day by day becoming a parasite who can go only as he is carried, the easy prey of fanatic or demagogue.” – Quoted from For The Children’s Sake, p67

You will get willing obedience by utilizing these means, but at the expense of developing a strong character who can think for themselves and will do what they ought because it is the right thing to do. 

Mason identifies four “natural desires” that are good in their place, being neither good nor bad, but when overemphasized or manipulated, also shift a child’s affection away from knowledge itself. These are:

  • Approbation (approval or praise),
  • Emulation (desire to excel),
  •  Avarice (extreme greed for wealth or material gain), and
  • Ambition.

Each is a good servant, but when one is favored at the expense of others, it is to the detriment of the development of the character of a child.

“We have considered the several desires whose function is to stimulate the mind and save us from that vis inertiae which is our besetting danger. Each such desire has its place but the results are disastrous if any one should dominate.” – Vol 6, p88

Approbation

Praising your child is natural for any parent. They do something well and we say, “great job!” There is no harm in this, as long as you do it “in such a way that no one set of motives be called unduly into play to the injury of the child’s character.” It’s about balance. It becomes a problem when children do the work SO that they get praise or approval. It becomes especially problematic when they desire it from the wrong people or for the wrong things. Praise for virtuous behavior such as hard work is more desirous than praise for achievements. One of my daughters qualified to take the DukeTIP this year (this means she placed in the 95th percentile or higher in last year’s standardized test and can take the college entrance SAT along with high schoolers). It is tempting to praise her for high academic abilities. But really, she was born with a keen mind, which she had absolutely no control over. Yes, a Charlotte Mason education of reading living books and narration went a long way to help her to place well, but it is her character qualities of diligence and hard work that are worthy to be praised, more than the achievement itself. I have other daughters who work just as hard and have received the same education, that will not, in all likelihood, qualify for DukeTIP. They were not created with the same academic abilities (more to the point, our current education system tests only a certain kind of ability, but I digress). But they are equally hardworking. When children begin to work for approval, instead of the knowledge itself, it is at the expense of character. Too much praise and of the wrong thing can cause a child to become conceited, which is a definite blight to a person’s character.

Emulation

When high test scores become the goal of education, the child no longer cares what it is he is learning. He crams for the exam to get the marks, only to promptly forget a short time after. Mason was highly critical of the trend she saw in schools of her day where the desire to excel was manipulated by the school system through prizes and rewards to get results.

“Emulation, the desire of excelling, works wonders in the hands of the schoolmaster; and, indeed, this natural desire is an amazing spur to effort, both intellectual and moral…
…In the intellectual field, however, there is danger; and nothing worse could have happened to our schools than the system of marks, prizes, place-taking, by which many of them are practically governed. A boy is so taken up with the desire to forge “ahead that there is no time to think of anything else. What he learns is not interesting to him; he works to get his remove.” – Vol 6. p85

What has a child gained by getting a good score if they don’t care about the knowledge that they scored high in?

Competitive Examinations aren’t helpful because the motivation isn’t knowledge. It is the “getting on”, achieving scholarships and the like. It doesn’t make them a better person.

Avarice

Closely connected with Emulation, is Avarice. When greed for wealth or material gain is played upon as a motivation for children to do their work, then we have a big problem. What happens to the child who works so that they can get good grades so they can get a scholarship, so they can go to the best college and get the best job so they can have lots of money and the best car and live on the best street… You get my point.  Having these things is not the problem. It is the unhealthy desire for them as the motivation for doing what ought to be done that is the problem. Where is the love of learning? Where is the love of doing the right thing because it’s the right thing?  Where is the human?

Ambition

Ambition hardly needs to be discussed. I think most of us know the difference between Ambition as a servant, that keeps us from stagnation, and Ambition as a master, which is an all-consuming tyrant.

Mason does not say that these “natural desires” are bad in and of themselves. They are good servants when in their place. It is when they are out of balance that it can be a detriment to character.

“… because the balance of character is destroyed by the constant stimulation of this one desire at the expense of the rest.” – Vol 2, p221

Mason’s goal is to see children self-dependent and self-ordered, who grow to love what is lovely and pursue what is good for themselves and for its own sake.

The coming principles will address what can be done toward that ideal, but for now, let me suggest that it is through gentle leading, not coercing, that we guide our children to delight in knowledge—because “knowledge is delectable.”

 

If you’d like to join me in studying Charlotte Mason’s 20 Principles, get your copy of Start Here and see this post for details

A Journey Through Charlotte Mason 20 Principles Directory

*For more on Education as a virtue, I really like this post by Mystie Winkler.

When The Ideal Meets The Real

As I study principles of education, I am reminded that there is a gaping chasm between the ideal and the real. I study educational philosophy because it is my vocation. Educating my kids is what God has called me to do and I want to do it to the best of my ability for the glory of God. But I do not measure up to the ideal. Education in my home is not always joyful, happy, or peaceful. I do not always treat my children with care for their emotions and personalities. I am often times met with bad attitudes (including my own), children who do not want to read the books I have given them to read, and who resist any kind writing with every fiber of their being. But I must not grow weary in doing good. I will never attain the ideal in my home. But I continue to work diligently toward it, knowing that anything that is achieved is not my own achievement but is a result of God’s grace. Educating is humbling. It requires leaning on the Lord for His strength, His help, His comfort. I cannot live the ideal. But He did. And only by His grace can I go forward. He is trustworthy when I fail. He is true when I am false. He is good when I sin. He is beautiful when my best is filthy rags. He is strong when I am weak. He is faithful when I am not. So whether I measure up to the educational standard set by philosophical thinkers that have come before, I can rest in the knowledge that, “all I have needed thy hand hath provided, Great is thy faithfulness, Lord, unto me!”

To God be the Glory.

We Are Made To Know

Last week, I discussed Charlotte Mason’s principle of authority and obedience. I chose to focus on her exploration of parental authority. This week, I am continuing the discussion by considering the other side of authority: self authority.

Parents have authority in the home, but we need to recognize that our children have been given a certain degree of authority too. Their authority, like ours, has been given by God. Their authority is the responsibility they have for their own learning.

Education Is a Feast

Throughout her philosophy of education, Mason uses the analogy of a feast to describe what education ought to be. Imagine Christmas dinner. When you sit down to share this celebratory meal with your family, you do not expect to be served only one kind of food. If all you got served was meat that was two days old and had already been chewed up for you, you would feel pretty disappointed and would likely not want to eat at all. The expectation is that the Christmas dinner table will be full of all kinds of food—rich, delicious, nourishing food that will feed your body the nutrients that it needs while tasting amazing. There will be plenty and there will be variety. And being a special meal, it will be the best food that the cook is able to produce for such a special occasion. This is the analogy that Mason has in mind when she discusses education. The teacher/parent supplies a well-ordered, varied, and nourishing feast of living books filled with living ideas. Mason explains over and over that ideas are the food for the mind. And ideas themselves are found in living books. These living books should be of the best quality that will nourish the mind with ideas of history, science, geography, art, music, and all areas that touch humanity. Since children are born persons, made in the image of God, their mind has the same capabilities as yours to deal with these ideas for themselves.

Learning Is Their Responsibility

“All school work should be conducted in such a manner that children are aware of the responsibility of learning; it is their business to know that which has been taught.” Vol. 6, pg. 74

Self-authority means that it is up to the children to “deal with these educational offerings in their own way and for themselves.” This is where Charlotte Mason’s philosophy of education diverges greatly from the traditional school/teacher mindset of how to educate children. It is tempting to want to hand feed them to make sure they ‘know’ all the facts. To drill them to oblivion to make sure they ‘get’ it all. We, in a sense, want to chew up their food for them. But what does that say about how we view the child? Do we believe that they are capable of dealing with ideas for themselves, or is it necessary to chop it all up and pre-package it with nice little fill-in-the-blank worksheets and comprehension questions? When we chop it all up we have decided for them what their minds should take away from a lesson. Instead of predigesting knowledge for them, the role of the teacher is to provide the best and most nourishing “food” through living books and allow the children to digest the food (ideas) and take what nutrition their mind needs for themselves. Teachers are to give the children the best books and let them do the work of knowing.* This is how they learn to think. Children need to be allowed to develop their own relationships with history, science, geography, and especially God. Lets not deprive their minds of the food’s nourishing properties but instead allow their mind to do its own work.* It is their responsibility to know.

We Are Made To Know

“But to make yourself attend, make yourself know, this indeed is to come into a king-all the more satisfying to children because they are so made that they revel in knowledge.” Vol 6. pg. 77

Remember when you went to the zoo and the children got excited seeing “Prickly Porky” the porcupine and proceeded to tell you all about their quills and their diet because you had read about them with delight in The Burgess Animal Book? Remember when you read Robinson Crusoe to your daughter and she earnestly interrupted you to tell you why Robinson shouldn’t have been complaining, but should have been grateful? Remember when you read that chapter in the history book about the steam engine being built, and she became excited as she remembered reading about the steam engine in her science book, making a beautiful connection between the invention and the time period for herself, while telling you all about it? We are made to know. We are made to revel in knowledge.

Mason’s lofty vision for education is “that children grow to revel in knowledge. That knowledge for its own sake is satisfying.” This might sound idealistic, but if we consider that children are creatures that bear the image of the Creator, isn’t it possible that these children, born with capable minds, are able to know and be satisfied in that knowledge?

It is true that children will not always want to know everything that is set before them. But why should that alter what is offered to them? They should want to know. The responsibility for knowing should be kept with them. Their minds have been created by God for the work of knowing. So as parents, we need to make it clear that this is what God requires of them. They will also learn the habit of wanting to know through a continual offering of the feast. We can hinder our children’s love for learning by repeating lessons instead of requiring them to pay attention the first time around. We can aid this growth by reducing the effort of their decisions through developing routines and habits as part of their school day.* This also removes the constant negotiating of the child to do what he wants to do rather than what ought to be done. This training in “mechanical obedience will set them in good stead for reasonable obedience later.”

Mason explains,

“The man who can make himself do what he will has the world before him, and it rests with parents to give their children this self-compelling power as a mere matter of habit.” Vol 3. pg. 20

Obedience

Parental authority (discussed in this post) and a child’s self-authority are the two conditions which Mason believed were necessary to secure the willing obedience of the children.

“Two conditions are necessary to secure all proper docility and obedience and, given these two, there is seldom a conflict of wills between teacher and pupils. The conditions are,—the teacher, or other head may not be arbitrary but must act so evidently as one under authority that the children, quick to discern, see that he too must do the things he ought; and therefore that regulations are not made for his convenience… The other condition is that children should have a fine sense of the freedom which comes of knowledge which they are allowed to appropriate as they choose, freely given with little intervention from the teacher.” Vol 6. pg.73-74

Children will not always obey all of the time. They are sinners just as we are. We live in a sinful world. Just as we sin and fall short of the glory of God, so too children sin and fall short of the glory of God. They will disobey. There will be times when discipline is required. But Mason believed that the establishment of this principle of authority will give surer footing for both teacher and taught. We will help our children toward obedience when they observe and are taught that parents are under the authority of God just as they are. They are to obey because parents are to obey. We will also help the children by showing them that the responsibility for learning is on them. They will come to understand that if they do not attend, if they do not give their full attention, if they do not make themselves know, they will not know. There is also joy in learning for the child who knows that they have freedom to deal with the educational offerings themselves. They more happily obey because of this freedom. These two principles will help to establish a right thinking of what the role of the parent and the student is and what God has created them for. We have been created to know. We have been created to know Him first, and then to know about what He has created. The responsibility for learning is on each individual for themselves. When this self authority is established, it is more joyfully attended to as we spread the educational feast fit for the minds of these persons.

*how to do this will be discussed in later principles.

If you’d like to join me in studying Charlotte Mason’s 20 Principles, get your copy of Start Here and see this post for details

A Journey Through Charlotte Mason 20 Principles Directory

Heredity, Total Depravity, and the Role of Education

A Journey Through Charlotte Mason’s 20 Principles: Principle 2

They are not born either good or bad, but with possibilities for good and for evil.

Before beginning my study on this principle, it was clear to me that I would need to place this statement in its historical context to properly understand Charlotte Mason’s meaning. On first reading, this statement appears to say something against the doctrine of original sin. I had been told and believed that this was not the case, but until studying this principle this month I had not spent any time investigating for myself.

Mason does not deny the doctrine of original sin. Karen Glass, author of Consider This: Charlotte Mason and the Classical Tradition and Know and Tell: The Art of Narration, has written a very helpful article on what it was that Mason was addressing, which I encourage you to read. In my own rudimentary Google searching into the subject I found historical explanations that will help set the context.

In the time of Mason, the beginning of the 20th century, the rise of Darwinism and the theory of evolution through natural selection led to a greater consideration of the role that genes play in the development of psychological as well as physical traits in an individual. The idea, now termed biological or genetic determinism, known then as heredity determinism, became an idea widely disseminated in society. “Most theories of biological determinism viewed undesirable traits as originating in defective genes” (Garland Allen)—that is, that the behavioral, as well as physical characteristics of a person, were solely determined by genetics. Mason saw that many parents and educators began to think that there was no point in trying to instruct a person in morals and right behavior because it was already determined by their genes. A bad egg will breed a bad egg and that was that.

In this principle, Mason argues that this is not the case and that education can contribute a great deal in training a person to right living and thinking. She says,

“There are good and evil tendencies in body and mind, heart and soul; and the hope set before us is that we can foster the good so as to attenuate the evil; that is, on condition that we put education in her true place as the handmaid of religion.” Towards A Philosophy of Education, p.46

As Glass points out in her article, Mason is not making a theological statement. She is commenting on the potential of all children to learn as an argument against the commonly held belief that some children, particularly the poorer classes, did not have any potential.

With this context in view, through my study of this principle, my mind has been occupied with considering the idea of the “possibilities for good.” Specifically, how much potential for ‘good’ do we really have outside of Christ in light of the doctrine of original sin and total depravity; and what role does education have, if any, in the training of good in our children.

The work of justification is the work of the Holy Spirit. There is nothing that education can do, in and of itself, toward the salvation of a person’s soul from being “dead in trespasses and sins” to “alive again in Christ.” Nor is sanctification a work that we alone can do. It is only with the Holy Spirit that we can grow in Christlikeness. Mason does not deny these truths. But she saw from experience that education is a servant to religion, a tool which ought not to be squandered, in leading children toward right thinking and living, and our ultimate hope, toward God. That all children, no matter what their station or economic status in life, no matter if their father is a poor alcoholic or a statesman in good standing, all have the possibility to learn what is good, just as much as they have of what is bad. This is directly related to Principle 1: Children are born persons. God has given all children His image and therefore, as discussed last month, His communicable attributes. He has given the ability to love, to be generous, to show mercy, kindness etc., and a mind with which to learn and grow in knowledge and wisdom.

As Christians, we acknowledge that it is only by God’s grace, common to all, that we can say or do any good. Any good we do in this life is still marred by sin. It is not the perfect good that is found in God alone, but it is a broken good that, by His grace of restraining our sinfulness, many, even non-Christians, achieve to some degree.

John Calvin explains.

“But here it ought to occur to us that amid this corruption of nature there is some place for God’s grace; not such grace as to cleanse it, but to restrain it inwardly… This God by his providence bridles perversity of nature, that it may not break forth into action; but he does not purge it within.” Institutes, p. 292-293.

Education is a tool that God can use to extend that common grace to us and restrain us from being as wicked as our hearts have the potential (and desire) to be.

I labor this point because of a great many discussions I had with my husband this month as I studied this principle. I struggled to articulate to him why Mason was not making an unbiblical statement. And each attempt at an explanation revealed that I did not hold rightly to, or at least could not articulate rightly, a biblical view of the sinful state of man’s heart. My husband took great pains to impress upon me how dire my heart really is without Christ. Yet my brain still wanted to say, “I have the ability in and of myself to be good because I choose to be.” But Jesus disagrees with me.

“No one is good except God alone.” Mark 10:18

Calvin expounds.

“Man’s understanding is pierced by a heavy spear when all the thoughts that proceed from him are mocked as stupid, frivolous, insane, and perverse.” Institutes, p. 290.

No. Without the work of the Holy Spirit, we have no possibility for good. And yet, God, because of His common grace, and out of His mere good pleasure, saw fit to endow to some a special grace that makes possible admirable and heroic actions for the blessing of mankind. These “special graces,” as Calvin calls them, are gifts from God and reflect His image. Education is used by Him as a tool to instruct all in what is right and be a blessing to mankind. Further, that through education some might be lead to know Him. “How are they to hear without someone preaching?” (Romans 10:14). Or, “Train up a child in the way he should go; even when he is old he will not depart from it” (Proverbs 22:6). By the means of education, He can lead us to humbly accept our fallen state and our need of Him.

“Thus it rests with parents to ease the way of their child by giving him habits of the god [spiritual] life in thought, feeling, and action, and even in spiritual things. We cannot make a child ‘good’; but, in this way, we can lay paths for the good life in the very substance of his brain.  We cannot make him hear the voice of God; but, again, we can make paths where the Lord God may walk in the cool of the evening.” Formation of Character, p. 141-142

If you’d like to join me in studying Charlotte Mason’s 20 Principles, get your copy of Start Here and see this post for details.

A Journey Through Charlotte Mason’s 20 Principles Directory

Children Are Born Persons

A Journey Through Charlotte Mason’s 20 Principles: Principle 1

At the foundation of Charlotte Mason’s philosophy of education is a simple, yet profound principle: children are born persons. As a Christian, this seems obvious. We believe that all of us, including children, are made in the image of God.

“So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them.” Genesis 1:27.

 
From conception we bear His image. We have value and dignity as persons because we bear His image. We are not God, nor does being created in His image mean we share His divine attributes (immutability, omnipresence, omnipotence, etc.). But we do reflect to a much lesser degree the beauty of God, the ability to know and understand truth, to be creative, to love, to show compassion, mercy, kindness, and so on.

Even though this truth is understood by most Christians, its wider educational implications can often be overlooked.

What are the educational implications of this understanding of children? Why did Charlotte Mason feel it necessary to point to children as persons as the first and primary principle of her education philosophy?

Because how we view children impacts how we educate them.

Mason begins her discussion on this principle by considering the mind of a child. She explains that we are not created “huge oysters” with empty minds waiting to be filled. We are made fully equipped with a working mind that from the moment of birth interacts and learns from the world around him. She describes in detail all the ways that infants demonstrate their fully-functioning mind.

“The other view is that the beautiful infant frame is but the setting of a jewel of such astonishing worth that, put the whole world in one scale and this jewel in the other, and the scale which hold the world flies up outbalanced.” Vol. 6, pg34

As the child grows she explains that, 

“Reason is present in the infant as truly as imagination. As soon as he can speak he lets us know that he has powered the ‘cause why’ of things and perplexes us with a thousand questions.” Vol. 6, pg37

Those who have raised toddlers know this all too well.

If you have ever had the delight of raising a 4-year-old girl, you know that before they have even come close to a school book their little minds are more than capable of reason, to the point where you are unwittingly negotiated out of or into something by a true expert in the art of negotiation. Clearly this little human is born with a complete and capable mind to be able to do this before any formal education has begun. Mason puts it most profoundly this way:

“If we have not proved that a child is born a person with a mind as complete and as beautiful as his beautiful little body, we can at least show that he always has all the mind he requires for his occasions; that is, that his mind is the instrument of his education and that his education does not produce his mind.” Vol. 6, p36

Because the mind of even the smallest child is capable and fully equipped “for his occasions,” we ought to give it the fullest respect in regards to its capabilities. The child’s mind is to feed on ideas. Give them meat. Give them the best books that put their minds in direct contact with the minds of those that love and care for the subject and write with an excellence worthy of the child’s mind.

“Mind must come into contact with mind through the medium of idea.” Vol. 6, pg 39

As children are born persons, they already come to us with their own personalities intact. They come as they are. We can have ideas about what we would like our children to do or be, but the reality is, they are already them. We need to educate, cultivate, and direct within their personalities, but we are not to encroach on their personalities. This means we are not to manipulate children with wide eyes and baby voices, coaxing them to follow our lead, or squelch their personalities when they are different from our own. When we do this we devalue the child and his aptitude to deal with the ideas themselves.

My oldest daughter helped at Vacation Bible School for the first time this year. After the first day she came home quite disturbed, realizing that she had spent the day talking down to the younger children simply because they were younger and smaller than her. She realized she spoke to them in a higher pitched voice with wide, excitable eyes, condescending to them. It is so easy to do, yet she immediately identified that this was not truth. It was devaluing them as persons who were able to understand perfectly well without condescension. She made it her distinct work to talk to them as she would any other human being. “It just felt unjust. I’ve read in books when the younger sibling realizes they were being talked down to. It doesn’t feel nice. They need to be told the plain facts and not spoken to like they are lower than I am.”

Because children are born persons, made in the image of God, we not only need to esteem highly the capabilities of their minds, and respect their personalities, we also need to be careful about incessant prodding and coaxing that can negate their responsibilities as persons. Mason says,

“What we must guard against in the training of children is the danger of their getting into the habit of being prodded to every duty and every effort. Our whole system of school policy is largely a system of prods. Marks, prizes, exhibitions, are all prods; and a system of prodding is apt to obscure the meaning of must and ought for the boy or girl who gets into the habit of mental and moral lolling up against his prods.” Vol. 3, pg39

This idea of prodding becoming a crutch to the mind of a child is a difficult concept for today’s educational culture. As in Mason’s day, our curriculums and school philosophies are full of such prods. But instead of prodding with prizes and question after incessant question to arrive at the answer the teacher wants to hear,

“Our business is to give children the great ideas of life, of religion, history, science; but it is the ideas we must give, clothed upon with facts as they occur, and must leave the child to deal with these as he chooses.” Vol. 6, p40

The temptation to prod is difficult to resist. But the benefit to the child if we do resist is life altering. As Mason says,

“Children must stand or fall by their own efforts.” Vol. 3, pg38

With my daughter’s permission I tell you this story.  For 3 years my daughter had been narrating her books beautifully. But Last year (AO Year 4), when handed her history books to read on her own, she struggled to pay attention and narrate. I did my best to guide and support her, but still, her attention to what she was reading was not adequate to narrate well. I was beside myself with frustration. Every time she came to narrate to me with, “There was this guy…I think there was a battle… I don’t know…” I wanted to prod her with questions.

You might be wondering, what would be wrong with asking her questions to get something out of her? But this child had been asking and answering her own questions in her narrations for the last 3 years. Narration does that. So to go from asking and answering her own questions to being prodded with questions by me would be to devalue her mind’s ability to continue to deal properly with the ideas before her, and teach her that the habit of attention was not important.

I had come to a point where I had to seriously consider if holding to this philosophy was what was best for this child. This led me back to the question: what is the purpose of education? Is it so that she could answer some questions on a test, or so that she would grow in wisdom and knowledge and virtue? Is it something to endure in her childhood so that she can get a job as an adult, or something to embrace as a life? What was the worst thing that would happen if we continued as we were, with me encouraging the habit of attention and trusting that her mind would eventually do the work it was made to do? The worst thing would be that she would not know about the that period of history (right now). What would she gain? She would gain the understanding that “all education is self education.” That is, that her learning was her responsibility and her mind has been created to do its own learning. I came to the conclusion that if we got to the end of the school year and she learned that lesson, the year was far more valuable than if she did know all the answers. So, with great difficulty, I trusted Mason and resisted prodding. I told my daughter that this was her education, not mine. It was her responsibility to pay attention and narrate to the best of her ability. Because at the end of the day, she is the one that will not know if she does not. The year continued in much the same way. Then came exams. My daughter struggled. When she couldn’t answer, I moved on to the next question and said nothing. By the end, she was in tears. Afterwards, as we hugged it out on the couch, we talked about why she thought she couldn’t answer the questions. A couple of weeks later I interviewed the children about how they felt about their school year. When asked what she needed to work on, this daughter answered, “History… because it is hard concentrating and I want to learn more about what happened.” By resisting prodding, the responsibility for learning was properly placed on her. And I can tell you, this year, she has taken that responsibility with enthusiasm and has narrated beautifully.*

“…every child has been discovered to be a person of infinite possibilities.” Vol. 6, pg44

How we view children influences how we educate them. Their education should respect their minds and honor them as whole persons made in the image of God.

There is so much more that Mason spoke of in this principle that I haven’t even touched on and am still mulling over in my mind. But this post is enough to begin the conversation. Now it is your turn. What stood out to you in your study of this principle? What questions did it raise? What practices have you changed in your teaching because of considering this principle? What ideas are you struggling with or still pondering? I’d love to hear from you.

It’s not too late to start studying Charlotte Mason’s 20 Principles along with me! Get your copy of Start Here and see this post for details.

* Physiological and developmental considerations were taken into account, but were beyond the scope of this discussion. The point remains, to prod her during this time would have been a disservice to her mind’s capabilities.

Studied Dictation: Part 2

Last week I explained what Charlotte Mason’s studied dictation was, and gave an example of a lesson plan. This week I want to share with you a modified Charlotte Mason dictation lesson that I developed for one of my daughters.  It combines Charlotte Mason’s idea of studying a passage from literature with an analytical style spelling program. I heavily relied on Uncovering the Logic of English by Denise Eide to plan this lesson. I want to stress that this is not dictation as Mason described. It does not contain her method of visualization, and pulls apart the words for analysis far more than Mason would.

My oldest daughter learned to read very quickly. After learning her letters and a few of the most common multiple phonograms, she taught herself whole words. This was great for fast reading, not so great for breaking down the words for spelling. When it came to writing words, she had no idea how to break up a word into its sounds. She didn’t have the phonetic tools. So I developed a plan that focused on phonograms, common spelling rules, and rules for punctuation. My daughter was 11 when we began these lessons. They served as a crash course to give her phonetic tools quickly. After a year, it was clear that this kind of lesson was no longer necessary and we have gone back to the standard Charlotte Mason Dictation lesson as described here.

Lesson Plan

Download the PDF version.

From The Incredible Journey by Sheila Burnford.

Suddenly, there was a sound of a heavy body pushing through the underbrush, accompanied by a sharp cracking of branches, and the spell was broken.

Phonograms: th, ou, ea, sh, ng, ough, er, ed, ar, ck, ch

Rules:

  • heavy, body. Rule: English words do not end with IUVJ. Rule: I and Y may say /i/ or /I/ at the end of a syllable.
  • accompany – accompanied. Y changes to i when adding ed
  • branch – branches. Add es when pluralizing a word that hisses
  • broke – broken. Silent final e makes the o say O. Every syllable must have a written vowel.

Punctuation:

  • Suddenly, –  Use a comma after introductory adverbs.

“Finally, I went running.”

“Unsurprisingly, I saw a duck when I went running.”

“Many adverbs end in “ly” and answer the question “how?” How did someone do something? How did something happen? Adverbs that don’t end in “ly,” such as “when” or “while,” usually introduce a dependent clause, which rule number two in this post already covered.

Also insert a comma when “however” starts a sentence, too. Phrases like “on the other hand” and “furthermore” also fall into this category. Starting a sentence with “however,” however, is discouraged by many careful writers. A better method would be to use “however” within a sentence after the phrase you want to negate, as in the previous sentence.” (1)

  • branches, – Comma Before And That Joins Two Independent Clauses

“The word and is a conjunction, and when a conjunction joins two independent clauses, you should use a comma with it. The proper place for the comma is before the conjunction.

“On Monday we’ll see the Eiffel Tower, and on Tuesday we’ll visit the Louvre.”

The sentence above contains two independent clauses, so it requires a comma before and. (By the way, you can tell they’re independent clauses because each one could stand on its own as a complete sentence.)” (2)

References
1. https://www.businessinsider.com/a-guide-to-proper-comma-use-2013-9
2. https://www.grammarly.com/blog/comma-before-and/
3. https://www.grammarly.com/blog/comma/
4. Uncovering The Logic of English by Denise Eide

Day 1

  • Underline all multiple phonograms and write above it which number sound is being used. (e.g. heavy – ea 2nd sound)
  • Mark known rules.
  • Take note of comma placement.
  • Use for copywork.

Day 2&3:

  • Teach the spelling of unknown words (as many as can be taught in 10 – 15 minutes).
  1. Every syllable must have a vowel. Have students identify the syllable by drawing a dotted line through each syllable of each word on their student paper. Write out the word with the syllabic breaks in them.

e.g. sud  den  ly, un  der  brush. bod  y,  heav  y, ac  com  pan  ied,  brok  en.

  1. Analyze the word in the direction of writing.

sud   den  – all first sound vowels
ly – Rule: English words do not end with IUVJ. Rule: Y says /E/ only at the end of a multi syllable word.

  1. Analyze roots for spelling

sudden  – add suffix ‘ly’

  1. Write from memory

Day 4:

  • Teach adding suffixes to single vowel Y words.
  1. Write on board: Single vowel Y changes to I when adding any ending, unless the ending begins with I.
    So there are two questions to ask: does it end with a single vowel Y? Does the suffix begin with any letter except I? If the answer is yes to both of these, change the Y to I and add the suffix. If the answer is no to either, just add the ending.
  2. Do some examples on the board.

try – tries, happy – happiness, busy – business, boy – boys (phonogram ‘oy,’ not a single vowel Y), worry – worrisome, annoy – annoyed (phonogram ‘oy,’ not a single vowel Y) cry – crier, study – studied.

Day 5:

  • Review any words learned this week and teach comma rules above.

Day 6&7:

  • Continue teaching the rest of the words, following the pattern of Day 2&3

e.g. Teach accompanied.

  1. Identify syllables –  ac  com  pan  ied.
  2. Analyse the word in the direction of writing.

ac com pan – all first sounds
ied – Rule: Single vowel Y changes to I when adding any ending, unless the ending begins with I.

  1. Analyze roots for spelling – accompany
    – does it end with a single vowel Y?  Yes
    – Does the suffix begin with any letter except I? Yes
    Then Y changes to I and add the suffix.
  2. Write out the word accompanied from memory.

Day 8:

  • Review comma placement
  • Discuss spelling of challenging words learned.
  • Practice writing the sentence out without looking. Provide help when needed.

Day 9:

  • Dictate.

Day 10:

  • Bonus challenge: spell unseen words that use the same rules we have learned the last two weeks.
  1. Rule: English words do not end with IUVJ.  and, Rule: Y says /E/ only at the end of a multi syllable word. sandy
  2. Rule: Single vowel Y changes to I when adding an ending, unless the ending begins with I. puppies, cried, toys, blindness
  3. Rule: The vowel says its long sound because of the E.   spoke
  4. Rule: Every syllable must have a vowel. Rule: AEOU usually say AEOU at the end of a syllable: despite
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